What is a Climate Smart Livelihood model ?

Mission Alliance support farmers to do "Climate Smart Livelihoods". Below we explain Climate Smart, and what kind of models we support in the Mekong delta. 

A climate smart livelihood model should: 

  1. Be more resilient to the local negative effects of Climate Change. For example, to grow something that is more resilient to saltwater intrusion.
     
  2. Not contribute to Climate Change or pollute the local environment. For example, not use chemicals and pesticides that harms the environment or food. 
     
  3. Be sustainable after external support stops. This means that the farmer should earn more money with the new model,  so that he or she will continue do the model when the support from the project stops. 
     
  4. Be accessible to poor farmers. It should be possible to do the new model without huge investments.

 

Some examples of Climate Smart Models that NMAV supports: 

Tien Giang (Tan Phu Dong)
Improved extensive Rice -shrimp farming

Sour sop
Lemon grass

Tra Vinh (Tieu Can)
Duck combined with fish rising
Cow rising combined with cement biogas

Pig rising combined biogas model

Below you will find more information about each livelihood model - and why they are Climate Smart. 


What is a Climate Smart Livelihood model ?

Improved extensive Rice -shrimp farming

1. Climate change adaptation:

Tan Phu Dong is a coastal district island and livelihood of people are mainly agriculture and aquaculture. In the context of complicated climate change happening in Tan Phu Dong district over the past years, such as more saline intrusion, prolonged heatwaves and drought has caused neagtives impacts aquaculture activities, especially freshwater shrimp breeding and rice growing.

Previously, farmers often get loss when raising two shrimp crops, because of diasease. High salinity, hot weather and polluted water environment make it difficult for shrimp to survive. High temperature and irregular weather cause massive loss for shrimp farming, according to farmers. Small-scale farmers and producers have already experienced severe negative effects of climate change in Tan Phu Dong. Local shrimp farmers are especially vulnerable to climate change and their livelihoods are at risk. Due to increasing salinity, farmers cannot growi 2 rice crops per year in this area anymore. Therefore, improved extensive rice shrimp farming(1 shrimp crop – 1 rice crop) is the best climate change adaptation model. Moreover, intensive shrimp farming requires high cost investment. If there is no adaptation effort, shrimp farming can have a high risk and push the farmer into loss and debt.

In order to be more resilient to climate change, improved extensive rice shrimp farming(1 shrimp crop - 1 rice crop) has been developed. It is an integrated rice–shrimp system within the same fields with alternative cropping of rice in the wet season and shrimp during the dry season. In this model, the shrimp crop is usually from January to August and rice crop September to December. At the end of December, farmers harvest rice, combining with field improvement  to prepare for the shrimp crop. When apply this model, economic effectiveness increased. This model is also adjusted to the fluctuation between saline water and freshwater in these areas, caused by sea level rise.
 

2. Environmental friendliness

This improved extensive rice-shrimp model uses low stocking densities and low additional feed requirements. This model is considered resilient to climate change impacts in terms of ensuring food security, being better able to adapt to extreme weather events and reduce emissions.

In the dry season, saline water is used for shrimp farming, in the rainy season, fresh water is used for rice cultivation. In the shrimp-rice cultivation system, after one shrimp crop, one rice crop will be planted, then the organic waste at the bottom of the pond after harvesting the shrimp will make the rice field fertile. And the farmer only apply a small amount of fertilizer to meet the growing needs of the rice.

In addition, in order to avoid affecting shrimps crop, farmers use less of pesticides (70-80% reduction). After the rice crop, the bottom of the pond has been mineralized so that the toxic substances are reduced, cut off the pathogen in ponds. The environment is stable, when doing shrimp farming it does not require pesticide, chemicals, which has the added value of limited production costs and thus profits increase. Rice farming system restricts the use of toxic chemicals, using water resources reasonably in seasons, adapt to natural conditions, create clean products, thereby increasing the value of goods. In addition, this model solves the problems of water pollution, aging of shrimp farming areas, minimizes disease risks and creates conditions for sustainable farming.

 

3. Sustainability

The improved extensive model is considered the most sustainable of all rice-shrimp farming models in Mekong delta. It requires a low level of investment, and is suited to the financial conditions and current farming techniques of rural households. The model is easy for farmers to apply due to low technical requirements and suitability to natural conditions with small investment and lower risk than semi-intensive farming. And model’s product is considered clean product and are favourite in the market. Actually, rice and shrimp product in Phu Tan commune are bought immediately by companies and dealers.

In Tan Phu Dong, especially Phu Tan commune, cultivated area for this model are expanded from 200 hectares in 2012 to 526 hectares in 2017 with 200 households due to model’s effectiveness.  Rice-shrimp also have higher profit than only rice or shrimp is cultivated in areas where saline intrusion occurs.
 

4. Model’s impact to the poor

Improved extensive shrimp farming on the Mekong Delta is an important source of income and livelihood for many small scale farmers. It helps farmers improve their income and create job for people. It has helped many farmers escape poverty and have potential for expansion.  In coming years, in line with Tan Phu Dong district’s orientation in developing rice shrimp farming, NMAV will support farmers, especially the poor households, in investing to buy rice -variety which resilient to salinity and shrimp post larvae. Salinity level tends to increase after years of model application, requiring more freshwater or longer desalination. We also support them in desalination as well as land improvement process. This year, together with local partner, we will support 30 poor households in Phu Tan commune apply this model.



What is a Climate Smart Livelihood model ?

Soursop

  1. Climate change adaptation

Tan Phu Dong is an island district with severe natural condition and recently affected by saline intrusion and drought. Due to climate change, it’s very difficult for the farmer to grow fruit-tree on waterlogged lowland and salty alkaline soil like Tan Phu Dong. In such difficult situation, the farmer actively convert to planting soursop to adapt quickly. However, normal soursop can not grow well and get high productivity in severe climate condition like Tân Phu Dong. Farmer have to graft pond apple root onto soursop tree since this kind of tree can survive in drought or flood condition and even resilient with saline intrusion and alkaline land. This is the reason why soursop is selected as mainstay cultivated crop in this district.

  1. Environment friendliness:

Currently, NMAV supports households in Phu Dong commune to build storage of fertilizer and pesticides to get VIETGAP(Vietnamese Good agricultural Practices) certification. It’s one of compulsory requirements when farmers planting soursop desire to have VIETGAP certificate for their product.

VIET GAP is a regulation on good agricultural practices for agricultural and aquatic products in Vietnam. This includes requirements in production, preliminary processing of crop products to: ensure food safety; product’s quality; health and safety of producer; environmental protection and traceability.

Applying VietGAP to change the habits, production behavior, produce products for the community, protect the ecological environment, improve life quality for community, ensuring the sustainable development of society. With VIETGAP certification, farmer will be able to sell  sour sop with higher prices and can export their fruit to international markets 

3. Sustainability

Advantages of soursop is suitable with harsh natural conditions, high productivity, easy to grow and care. Farmer in Tan Phu Dong can convert  from inefficient rice land to plant soursop since profit from this product is 6 to 10 times higher in comparison with growing rice. Soursop can be harvested all year round. Life span of soursop tree is quite long, up to 40 years.

Comsumption market of soursop is quite large and stable as this fruit is not only used as a beverage but also processed into jam, candy and tea. In the past, some companies suggested to sign big contract with Phu Dong soursop small coopertives, however, the farmers can not afford to provide large yield for traders.

  1. Impact:

Sour sop is considered as fruit-tree for poverty reduction. If a famer have 3000m2 of sour sop, and take good care, every year the profit is not less than 100 million

Planting and buying sour sop creat job for the poor in this area.


 


What is a Climate Smart Livelihood model ?

Lemongrass

 

  1.  Climate change adaptation:

Lemon grass can be resilient with saline land area, often facing with drought and  lack of water cultivation like Tan Phu Dong island. In dry season, if lacking of water, lemon grass can survive with low salinity water. This is a great advantage why lemon grass was selected as key economic crops in saline areas. In recent years, many households have boldly converted from inefficient rice land to lemon grass to adapt  with the climate change situation.

  1. Friendliness environment:

Planting lemon grass is quite simple, and do not need to use pesticides. Therefore, it less harmful to environment.

In coming years, NMAV intend to support farmers who apply VIETGAP standard in planting lemon grass. Currently, there is an enterprise investing to build a factory to extract lemon grass essential oil with new method. In response to climate change, environmental protection and rational use of resources, this company uses new technology of cell-breaking pressure to distill lemon grass. This method is  good to the environment as  leaves of lemon grass after extracted oil is also used as organic fertilizer, helping to solve agricultural waste problems and using less chemimal fertilizer. For this environmental protection elements, also, NMAV will  work with this factory/enterprise and support poor households who are members of small cooperatives and apply this factory’s standard procedure in planting lemon grass to have safety and quality product and be able to sell with higher price.

  1. Sustainability
  • Lemon grass is easy to grow, less pestilent insect.
  • Can be planted at a lemon grass – growing area and intercropped in any vacant land.
  • High efficiency: less investent cost, the economic cycle of lemon grass lasts, planting once but harvested from 3 to 4 years, conomic efficiency is about three times higher than planting rice.
  1. Impact:
  • Job creation for local laborers thank to harvesting lemon grass.
  • Lemon grass is considered poverty reduction crops in Tan Phu Dong island.  Currently, Tan Phu Dong become the largest lemon grass cultivation area in Tien Giang province, bringing important economic benefits.

What is a Climate Smart Livelihood model ?

 

 

Duck combined with fish rising

A: Why selecting this model?

Climate change Adaptation/ Mitigation- environment aspects

  • Raising duck in fish pond will increase enough oxygen for fish’s respiration, ensure normal metabolically process water within pond. No need to equip oxygen- machine when raising fish
  • Many species of cat-fish are adapted to changed environment
  • Water environment in fish pond will help the ducks to adjust their body temperature during hot season.
  • Avoiding polluted water sources because duck’s waste or duck’s leftover food can feed for fish

Friendly productivity- environment aspects

  • This model is studied by Can Tho University and being implemented by Adaptation in Mekong Delta (AMD)/IFAD in Tra Vinh and Ben Tre.

B: Market accessibility and income generation- economic aspects

  • Can use the remaining food of ducks to feed for fish (rice, straw husk, mixed food). This reduces the cost of buying fish food.
  • Fish and duck are easy to access market both internal and external market.
  • Easy to raise fish and take care of them in abnormal weather and climate change situation
  • Doesnt require much capital to invest on this model.

C: Local geography, knowledge and available researches and social impacts

  • This model is suitable for the poor/nearly poor households
  • This model supports the collaboration of stakeholders such as farmers, project and national finance. This contributes to socio economic development and reduces poverty.
  • Establish production groups based on "government decree 151" to help farmers avoiding pressure on market price, for instance price pressure from collectors/buyers. It also guides farmers to change their habits in raising such as checking original of seed/breed, production quality control/management, requiring the market demand.
  • Farmers are familiar and experience on fish, duck raising.

2.         Available resources of model

Assess local available resources and knowledge

  • Available breeding/bay fish, duck, easy to purchase and sale products.
  • Appropriate for households who have less land or lacking capital for investment
  • Farmers are interested with this model because it is easy to access market and less fluctuation on price.

Availability and competence of local technical staff

  • Experience and technical competence on both vaccination and treatment available
  • Commune authorities and farmers support investment in this model.

Capacity and competence of target group on model:

  • Farmers have good experience on this model
  • Not required much on food investment, especially poor households.
  • Not required much on labour force.

Others

  • Model has been implemented by Adaptation project in Mekong delta, funded by IFAD
  • Based on IFAD research on “standards for livelihood smart model”


What is a Climate Smart Livelihood model ?

 

 

Cow rising combined with cement biogas

Why selecting this model?

a.1 Climate change Adaptation/ Mitigation- environment aspects

  • Cow is easy to adapt in hot and cold weather changing condition. Cow must only be kept safe and clean in cage. Therefore, less risk of loss during raising period
  • Cow combined with cement biogas (or plastic biogas) is a bio-model. It uses cow’s waste to make compost for planting or/and use waste and urin to make gas for burning fuel at home.
  • Cow’s waste treatment will reduce CH4 release out to the atmosphere (1 CH4 = 4 CO2). So, it contributes to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG).


a.2 Friendly productivity- environment aspects

  • Cow’s waste can use to make compost for planting and make gas to create fuel. Therefore, it limits polluting the surrounding environment and protects health for community. 
  • Biogas is reducing pollution and omproving waste treatment in husbandry.
  • This model is studied by Can Tho University and being implemented by AMD/IFAD in Tra Vinh and Ben Tre.
     

b)         Market accessibility and income generation- economic aspects

  • Cow meat is easy to sell at any internal and external market.
  • Easy to raise cow and take care of them and it is weather/climate robust, agriculture cultivation of target areas
  • Considered as a big amount of money saving for the poor after harvesting.
  • Grass/food is easily available resource, low cost spent during raising cycle. So, it is suitable for beneficiaries such as poor, nearly poor
  • High cost investment for buying cow, but this model gets financial contribution from national program 48 - biogas support, and national program 135-  poverty reduction
     

c)         Locally on geography, knowledge and available researches and social impacts

  • Model create collaboration of stakeholders such as farmers, project and national finance to reduce poverty and contribute to social economic development.
  • Establish production groups based on "government decree 151" to help farmers avoiding pressure on market price, for instance price pressure from collectors/buyers. It also guides farmers to change their  habit in raising such as checking original of seed/breed, production quality control/management, requiring the market demand.
  • Farmers are familiar and experienced in cow raising. This model is supported by local people and local authority.
  • Help farmers to save cost for gas burning, cooking
     

3.         Available resources of model

A)        Assess local available resources and knowledge

  • Cow raising is popular model in Tieu Can, Tra Vinh province.
  • Available cow breeding, it's easy to purchase and sale products.
  • This model is selected by local government as well as farmers and this model is encouraged by government.

B)         Availability and competence of local technical staff

  • Technical competence on cow raising both vaccination and treatment is available.
  • Government support investment in this model and it is part of the national program on poverty reduction
     

C)         Capacity and competence of target group on model:

  • Full responsibility of target group because it is considered poor/nearly poor’s saving money
  • Available and abundant grass for cow’s food
  • Not required much on land area, especially, it’s suitable for household without land cultivation.
  • Not required much on labour force.


D)        Others

  • Model has been implemented by Adaptation project in Mekong delta, funded by IFAD
  • Based on IFAD research on “standards for livelihood smart model”



 


What is a Climate Smart Livelihood model ?

Pig rising combined with biogas model

1: Why selecting this model?

a.1 Climate change Adaptation/ Mitigation- environment aspects

  • Pig combined cement biogas (or plastic biogas) is bio-model to create fuel (electric, gas) for burning at home.
  • Pig’s waste treatment will reduce CO2 out to the atmosphere. So, it contributes to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG).

a.2 Friendly productivity- environment aspects

  • Biogas is contributing to reduce pollution and waste treatment in husbandry.
  • Reducing bad smell, pollution caused for surrounded environment, and protecting community’s heath.
  • This model is studied by Can Tho University and being implemented by AMD/IFAD in Tra Vinh and Ben Tre.

b)         Market accessibility and income generation- economic aspects

  • Pig product (pig meat) is easy to sell at any market internal and external market.
  • Easy to raise pig and take care of them
  • Reasonable cost investment for buying pig, so It is easy for the poor to join this model.
  • Getting support financially from the national program 48 - support biogas

Note: Pig raising has unpredict prices, for some years have stable/high price, then it might suddenly drop 1 year with very low price. Therefore, local and community need to be aware on it.   

c)         Locally on geography, knowledge and available researches and social impacts

  • Current market, pig’s price is on the top.
  • Model is suitable for the poor, nearly poor to access.
  • Financial support for installing biogas, max is 5,000,000/household from government (from program 48- biogas support)
  • Apply decrees 151 - production group to make business to avoid pressure on price from market like sales, companies, collectors. Moreover, It is forward to create better quality and demand the need of market throughout the same inputs, outputs, i.e. the quality breed, meat quality…
  • Farmers are familiar and experienced with pig raising. This model is a good solution for landless poor households.
  • Help farmers to save cost for gas burning, cooking

2.         Available resources of model

A)        Assess local available resources and knowledge

  • Pig raising is popular model in Tieu Can, Tra Vinh province.
  • Available pig breeding, easy to purchase and sell products.
  • This is a selected model for local government as well as farmers.

B)         Availability and competence of local technical staff

  • Technical competence on pig raising both vaccination and treatment available.
  • Technical experience in biogas installment and instruct household how to use and maintain biogas

C)         Capacity and competence of target group on model:

  • Not required much on land area, especially, it’s suitable for household without land cultivation.
  • Not very labour intensive

D)        Others

  • Model has been implemented by Adaptation project in Mekong delta, funded by IFAD
  • Based on IFAD research on “standards for livelihood smart model”
  • The model can’t implement if there aren’t various financial resource from locally

 

More information about Biogas model

Introduction about model

Biogas is a mixture of mainly methane and carbon dioxide produced during the digestion of organic matter such as animal (cow, pig) and chicken waste as well as crop residues. In the absence of oxygen, anaerobic bacteria ferment biodegradable matter into methane (40-70% is enough to create gas for burning, cooking), carbon dioxide (30-60%), hydrogen (0-1%) and hydrogen sulphide (0-3%). The ideal process temperature for the fermentation process is at about 35°C, which might require additional heat or insulation of the digester in regions with daily or seasonal temperature fluctuations.

Benefit of model

  • Encouraged by government and be consider as best solution for husbandry
  • Avoiding bacteria and disease for animal in cage
  • Collect gas burning purpose, cooking.
  • Saving cost for buying fuel
  • Keep environment clean and keep good relationship among neighbour thanks to avoiding smelling from animal
  • The waste release from cement biogas that can use as compost to irrigate directly to crop, vegetable. It can use to feed fish in pond

Technical requirements:
To operated biogas model, target group must keep animal in cage permanently, for example:

  • Pig: at least 5 pigs
  • Cow: 2 cows
  • Chicken/duck: 200
  • Department of Rural and Agriculture development (DARD) in charge for technical of instalment
  • Cost for model
    • 8 mil for 01 cement biogas with 6 m3
    • 12 mil for 01 cement biogas with 8 m3

Note: According to national program, Government will subside 50%- 5,000,000 max/household to install cement biogas. This is in function until 2020.

What is a Climate Smart Livelihood model ?

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